The production cycle of printed or multimedia publishing includes several phases, to which various professional figures work. Some of these are the same, whether it is to develop a product intended for printing, or whether it is a digital product.
The first stage consists of the editorial project. It consists of evaluating the appropriateness of the product to be placed on the market and the strategies (economic, organizational, etc.) to do so. Once the type of product has been defined, the user who will use it, the transmission channel with which to distribute it, and collected the resources (human and financial) with which to proceed, it is possible to proceed to the actual processing.
We can say that the development of an editorial product always includes a focus on three elements, which we will analyze one at a time:
Whether it is provided in the form of a typescript, made available on magnetic media or already printed data, the text includes a processing phase which consists in translating it into comprehensible data for the layout programs used for desktop publishing (DTP). Once this phase is over, a revision must be envisaged, which consists in making a first correction of the text, in verifying the hypertext links, but also in ensuring that a standardization with respect to the fees provided by the type of editorial product is respected.
Even for images, if they are not already digital, a translation into comprehensible data is foreseen to the layout software, made possible through an acquisition of the same with the scanner. Often, then, the images acquired or produced on the computer are further processed, enriched, adapted for the purpose through special graphic software.
Pagination or multimedia development
Whether it is a multimedia screen, a website page or a book front, it is clear that all the material collected and presented in the editorial product requires appropriate layout. This work phase always takes place through DTP systems. first of all we start from a graphic project, which defines the model to which we then standardize all the work. Then we move on to the print draft, aimed at verifying the coherence between the text and the images or, in the case of electronic publishing, the structural coherence and communicative effectiveness of the logic design. Once the draft has been approved, the films for the printing matrices are made, if the product is paper-based, or the work is submitted to the Debugger, if it is a multimedia product.
The trades of the publishing world
Sometimes the passion for literature seems never to be transformed into a real trade. In reality publishing, despite being a field of work that has existed for centuries, has always been renewed thanks to the continuous technological discoveries that have accompanied and favored its development. In particular, in the last few years the publishing industry, along with all the professions related to the world of writing and reading, have been re-evaluated thanks to the innovations of the digital world. The development and growth of the Internet, the ability to store data in CD-Rom and then to process multimedia has led to the birth of new jobs, alongside the more traditional ones.
Obviously, the author is the one who creates the new text, which produces the words. In order for his work to be made available on the market, he must have recourse to the professional figures who deal with giving the text a paper or multimedia form. In both cases it is therefore flanked, in its creation process, by the Editor.
This figure is responsible for choosing and evaluating the texts written by the author. He must possess a good literary sensitivity because he must be able to choose, among all the proposals, the one that has a higher value. But at the same time it must be able to see projected textual material in a final product, to be presented on the market. His task is a very important mediation task, which leads him to make the final decision.
The editorial editor deals with the concrete production of a text intended for the press. Often it represents an intermediary between author and publisher. Its task is to supervise and coordinate the realization of a publishing project, in all its phases: from editing to editorial reading, from paging tests to proofreading and collation verification, from the comparison with the version of the author at the predisposition, together with the Graphic, of the cover.
It is a new professional figure, similar in some respects to that of the editorial editor but who must be able to use the most innovative information technologies, from spreadsheets to HTML, to develop products online or off-line. He can take care of identifying the new products to be developed on the market, or working on the production of a product itself, transferring textual material to the data entry (the work group that follows the data entry into the computer).
It is a figure that is flanked, above all in the more complex publishing products, with those of the editorial editor or the electronic editor. Next to the Editor, he is in charge of the control of the editorial product and of the relationships between Author, Publisher and the Marketing section.
There are different types of journalists: the Press Journalist, the Television Journalist or the Radio Journalist, the Electronic Head Journalist or the Agency Journalist. It deals with acquiring, selecting and processing information, transforming it into a finished product that can be news, an article or a service. To become a journalist there are numerous schools, of which only 8 are recognized by the Order: they, with a limited number and a minimum duration of 2 years, include 18 months of internship (internship or other) and a final eligibility exam. It is thus possible to request registration on the Register.
Proofreader and Reviewer
These two professional figures work together in the area of word processing, giving it a final version. As can be guessed from the same name, both deal with re-reading and checking the texts, verifying their coherence and cohesion, as well as correcting the errors.
The Content Manager is the manager and creator of the contents of a website and the way in which such content must be conveyed on the site. He must have transversal skills ranging from organizational skills to perfect knowledge of the Italian language, from marketing notions to knowledge of the main digital information processing tools (HTML, spreadsheets, but more in-depth knowledge is often required).
He is the author of the web, the one who deals with producing texts that are born to be inserted in a website. Compared to the author, the Web writer must be aware that his text will be read by a user connected to the network, and must therefore adapt to the needs of online writing: a much shorter and more concise writing, developed with a logical organization and clearly visible. In some respects this professional figure is similar to that of the Journalist who writes an article, although in this case it may be non-informative material.
Together with the Art Director, he is the one who deals with the conception and elaboration of an advertising message: while the first one is the graphic or visual definition, the second is the definition of the textual formula to be used. If a humanistic degree is the basis for this task, a certain artistic talent and even a specialization at a school of advertising graphics is also necessary.
The writer is the one who writes what are the stories to be “told” on television or in the cinema. If it is a television script, the product to be created is a project called “the Bible”, which is a document of ten pages containing the title, the name of the author, the description of the proposed story, the profile of the characters and the duration of the individual episodes. In the cinema, instead, we start with the drafting of a subject with the intertwining and the outline of the main elements. However, the screenwriter must have a great knowledge of diction (pauses, silences, tones, etc.) and be able to master the various types of narrative structure.